The Joint Commission Issues Clarification on Texting of Patient Care Orders

“The use of secure text orders is not permitted at this time.”

In 2011 the technology to provide for the safety and security of text messaging was not available, and at that time The Joint Commission (“TJC”) said it was not acceptable for practitioners to text orders for patient care and treatment.  Then in May of 2016, TJC acknowledged all of the technology and data privacy and security issues it had in 2011 had been addressed. As published in The Joint Commission Perspectives, TJC revised its position and said physicians could text message when done in accordance with standards of practice, laws and regulations, and policies and practices “as long as the system met specific requirements .”

Since then, however, TJC got together with CMS and recently issued updated recommendations that include the following:

  • Providers should have policies prohibiting the use of unsecured text messaging of PHI.
  • CPOE (computerized provider order entry) should be the preferred method for submitting orders, which are directly entered into the electronic health record.
  • If a CPOE or written order is not available, a verbal order is acceptable, but only when impossible or impracticable to use CPOE or written orders.
  • The use of secure text orders is not permitted at this time.After further review the call on the field, as it were, has been overturned.

This turnaround came about after TJC and CMS discussed the issues with numerous stakeholders, including text messaging platform vendors and experts in EHRs. The identified issues that led to the recent decision included:

  • Increased burden on nurses to manually transcribe text orders into the EHR.
  • Verbal orders are preferred when CPOE not used, because they allow for real-time clarification and confirmation of the order as it is given by the practitioner.
  • Text messaging could cause delay in treatment where a clinical decision support (“CDS”) recommendation or alert is triggered during data entry, requiring the nurse to contact the practitioner for additional information.

To view the Dec. 22, 2016 full text article on the TJC website click here to download.

 

Failure to Update Business Associate Agreement Leads to Health System’s Settlement with OCR

A hospital’s breach notification to the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”) led to a Resolution Agreement, payment of $400,000 and a Corrective Action Plan for an east coast health system. On September 23, 2016, OCR issued a press release advising that Woman & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (“WIH”) a member of Care New England Health System (“CNE”) notified OCR of a reportable breach in November of 2012, stemming from its discovery that unencrypted backup tapes containing electronic Protected Health Information (“PHI”) were missing from two of its facilities. CNE provides centralized corporate support to the covered entities under its common ownership and control, including technical support and information security for WIH’s information systems, as its business associate. Although WIH had in place a business associate agreement (“BAA”) with CNE, it was dated from March of 2005 and had not been updated since implementation and enforcement of the HIPAA Omnibus Final Rule.

OCR’s investigation of WIH’s HIPAA Compliance program, triggered by the report of the missing tapes, uncovered the outdated BAAs. WIH updated their BAA on August 28, 2015, as a result of OCR’s investigation. OCR then determined that from September 23, 2014, the date enforcement of the Final Rule began, until August 28, 2015, WIH impermissibly disclosed the PHI of at least 14,004 individuals to its business associate when WIH provided CNE with access to PHI without obtaining satisfactory assurances, in the form of a written business associate agreement, that CNE would appropriately safeguard the PHI. The settlement was reached without any admission of liability by CNE or WIH.

The settlement is a jolt to many covered entities and their business associates for a number of reasons. The key take-aways are: (1) There is an inference in the OCR’s actions that a well worded BAA, wherein the business associates agrees to abide by the specifications required by the Privacy and Security Rules, is sufficient to satisfy the covered entity’s obligation to obtain “satisfactory assurances” the business associate will appropriately safeguard the PHI (meaning those often lengthy and burdensome security questionnaires or audits business associates are being asked to complete may be unnecessary and not required); (2) documentation of intent and action, including policies, procedures and BAAs, is extremely important in establishing HIPAA Compliance (i.e., the fact that the mistake occurred—tapes went missing—is being treated as the result of the absence of a written agreement, justifying the enforcement action, when in reality it is likely, or at least conceivable, that human error, inadvertence or lack of attention is the root cause and this could have occurred even if an updated BAA was in place and being followed); and (3) policies, procedures and continuous training and retraining of the workforce handling PHI is imperative to a successful HIPAA compliance program, and remains on the radar of any OCR investigation.

A copy of the Resolution Agreement and Corrective Action Plan may be found on the OCR website at http://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/compliance-enforcement/agreements/wih.
OCR’s sample BAA may be found at http://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/covered-entities/sample-business-associate-agreement-provisions/index.html.

Ransomware: Preparing for the Storm That’s A Brewin’

On July 11, 2016, the Office for Civil Rights (“OCR”) published guidelines for ransomware attack prevention and recovery, including the role HIPAA has in assisting covered entities and business associates to prevent and recover from such attacks, and how HIPAA breach notification processes should be managed in response to a ransomware attack. According to the OCR report, there have been 4,000 daily ransomware attacks since early 2016, up 300% from 2015. Earlier this week a healthcare IT Security Consultant told me the chatter he hears is that the hackers out there are working on stronger, more aggressive, more deadly hacks to unleash, and he fears a hacking storm a brewin’. Time to get serious and batten down the hatches, folks!

8-3The OCR report describes what a ransomware attack is, and explains that maintaining strict HIPAA Security Rule compliance can help prevent the introduction of malware, including ransomware. Some of the required security measures discussed include:

  • Implementing a security management process, which includes conducting a risk analysis and taking steps to mitigate or remediate identified threats and vulnerabilities;
  • Implementing processes to guard against and detect malicious software;
  • Training users on malicious software protection; and
  • Implementing access controls.

Since ransomware  gets into your system and then ties up your data, denying you access to your data (usually through encryption), and then directs you to pay a ransom to the hacker in order to receive a decryption key, maintaining frequent backups and ensuring the ability to recover data from backups is crucial to recovering from a ransomware attack. Again, HIPAA compliance protects entities because the Security Rule requires covered entities and business associates to implement a data backup plan as part of maintaining an overall contingency plan, which includes periodic testing of the plan to be sure it works.

The presence of ransomware – or any malware – is considered a security incident and triggers the need to initiate security incident response and reporting procedures. Based upon an analysis of the investigation results, breach notification may be required. Additionally, if there is an impermissible disclosure of PHI in violation of the privacy rule there is a presumed breach which may trigger notification. Whether or not the presence of ransomware would be a breach under HIPAA Rules is thus fact specific. However, unless the entity demonstrates there is a “…low probability that the PHI has been compromised,” a breach of PHI is presumed to have occurred and the entity must comply with the applicable breach notification provisions.

Further information and a copy of the OCR report can be found here.

OCR Provides Further Clarification on Charging Flat Rate for Copies of PHI

The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) at the Department of Health and Human Services recently provided further clarification about the amount that an individual may be charged for a copy of their protected health information (PHI). After releasing guidance earlier this year about individuals’ rights under HIPAA to access and obtain a copy of their health information, OCR provided clarification in response to questions it received after releasing the guidance. In a new frequently asked questions, OCR clarifies that $6.50 is not the maximum amount that can be charged to provide individuals with a copy of their PHI. Rather, OCR states that charging a flat fee of $6.50 is an option available to those covered entities (or business associate acting on behalf of the covered entity) that do not want to calculate the allowable fees for providing individuals with copies of their PHI as provided by the Privacy Rule.